بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allâh, the Most-Beneficent, the Most-Merciful
Children in the Masjid
By Haytham Sayfaddîn
There is a tendency for many people to state that it is not allowed for children to be in the Masjid, that children cannot be in the Masjid during the time of Salât, that they may only come when they are a certain age or that they may only come when we can guarantee a certain type of behaviour from them. Then based upon this statement, fathers and mothers are prevented from bringing their children to the Masjid. Furthermore, if parents choose to bring their children with them, they are frowned upon, looked down upon, and on occasion, these children are even hit.
Due to the strong convictions of those who make these statements and perform these actions, it is important to look at the likes of these claims in the light of the Islâmic texts in order to reach a conclusion regarding their validity.
In the following sections I will discuss the evidences used by those who permit children in the Masjid as well as those used by the prohibiting group. I will also give some suggestions on how to deal with these issues based on the evidence from the Qur’ân and the Sunnah.
Evidence for the Permissibility of Children Coming Into the Masjid
1-On the authority of Abû Qatâdah al-Ansârî, رضي الله عنه, that the Messenger of Allâh,صلى الله عليه وسلم, used to pray while he was carrying Umâmah Bint Zaynab, the daughter of the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, and (the daughter of) Abul-’Âs Ibn Rabî’ah Ibn ‘Abd Shams. Then when he would place her down if he prostrated and pick her back up when he stood back up. (1)
And it is confirmed that this was in the Masjid, not in a home or elsewhere, as another narration states: “While we were sitting in the Masjid, the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, emerged to us…” (2)
And it was also in Salât al-Jamâ’ah, not in a Nafl or individual Salât, as found in another narration: “I saw the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, leading the people (in the Salât) while Umâmah was upon his shoulder…” (3)
Imâm Abû Muhammad Ibn Hazm al-Andalûsî stated: “And these two Ahadîth confirm the lie of those who contradict them and claim that it was a Nafl (prayer).” (4)
Also, it is important to note that at that time, Umâmah was a very young girl, as is mentioned in another narration of this Hadîth: “…and he was carrying her as she was a young girl…” (5)
The word used here for ‘...very young girl...’ is Sabiyyah. Concerning this word, Imâm Abut-Tayyib al-’Athîmabâdî stated: “And a Sabiyyah is one who has not been weaned yet.” (6)
And concerning the benefits extracted from this Hadîth, Imâm Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalânî stated that this was evidence for: “The permissibility of having young children enter the Masâjid.” (7)
Imâm Abut-Tayyib al-’Athîmabâdî stated: “And in it there is the permissibility of having young children enter the Masâjid.” (8)
2-On the authority of Abû Qatâdah, رضي الله عنه, that the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said: “Indeed, I stand in the Salât and intend on making it lengthy, then I hear the crying of a child, so I make my Salât short out of dislike to burden its mother.” (9)
And in another important narration similar to this Hadîth, Anas, رضي الله عنه, stated: “The Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, if he heard the crying of a child with his mother while he was in the Salât, would read a light Sûrah or a short Sûrah.” (10)
In this Hadîth we see that children were allowed in the Masjid, at the time of Salât. Not only that, but they would cry to the point that they were heard at the front of the Masjid. Furthermore, the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, did not prevent the children or warn their parents. Instead, he actually altered his intended length of Salât so as to not place the mother in distress when hearing the baby cry.
3-On the authority of Anas Ibn Mâlik, رضي الله عنه, who said: “I did not pray behind any Imâm who shortened and perfected the Salât as much as the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم. He would hear the crying of a child and would make it short out of fear that its mother would be burdened.” (11)
What was said about the previous Hadîth can be said about this Hadîth as well.
4-On the authority of Abû Buraydah, رضي الله عنه, who said: “The Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, gave a Khutbah to us, then Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn came forth wearing red shirts; tripping and getting back up. So he descended and picked them up, then ascended the Minbar with them, then said: ‘Allâh has told the Truth: ‘Your wealth and your children are only a trial…’ I saw these two and could not be patient.’ Then he continued the Khutbah.” (12)
In this Hadîth we see that children were allowed in the Masjid in the time of a Khutbah. This is significant for a number of reasons; the first is that the point of the Khutbah is to listen and benefit from what is being said. The second is that these children were walking around and tripping, and people were able to see this.
And concerning the reason why Al-Hasan and al-Husayn were tripping, then Imâm Abul-Fadhl ‘Abdur-Rahmân Ibn al-Husaynî, better known as Al-Hâfith al-’Irâqî, mentioned that there are three opinions that the scholars have stated. (13) And if we look at what he mentioned, each opinion indicates that they were very young. The first is that they were tripping due to the length of the shirts they were wearing. From this we know that they were young because a child who is older would be able to adjust their walking in order to avoid tripping on a long shirt. The second is that they were tripping due to how fast they were running. This shows that they were young because an older child would be able to run without tripping. It also shows that they were actually running in the Masjid during a Khutbah. The third is that they were tripping because they were still weak and uncoordinated in their walking. This is the clearest in proving they were young, and it is also the opinion Al-Hâfith al-’Irâqî declared to be the strongest.
Another proof that this was when they were very young is the fact that the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, picked both of them up and ascended the Minbar. Had they been in late childhood, this would likely not have been done.
5-On the authority of Abû Bakrah, رضي الله عنه, who said: “I heard the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, upon the Minbar, while Al-Hasan was beside him; he would look back and forth between him and the people, and he said: ‘This son of mine is a master; and Allâh will reconcile between two groups of Muslims through him.’” (14)
This Hadîth is similar to the one before it in what it proves, albeit with less details.
And although this Hadîth does not clearly state that he was a child, we can derive this based on the following:
About the date of birth of Al-Hasan, رضي الله عنه, Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalânî stated: “And it was during Ramadhân in the third year after the Hijrah, at the most., and it is said that it was after that...And the death of the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, was seven or eight years after that at the most.” (15)
So from this, we see that, at the very most, Al-Hasan would have been eight years old.
So not only was he a child, but he wasn’t even at the age where it would be obligatory to hit him had he refused to pray. It is narrated on the authority of Sabrah Ibn Ma’bad al-Juhanî, رضي الله عنه, that the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said: “Order the child to perform the Salât when he reaches seven years (old). Then when he reaches ten years (old), hit him concerning it.” (16)
And in a similar phrasing from him as well: “Teach the child the Salât when he is seven years (old) and hit him concerning it when he is ten years (old).” (17)
6-On the authority of Shâddâd al-Laythî, رضي الله عنه, who said: “The Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, emerged to us at one of the two night-time prayers while he was carrying Al-Hasan or Al-Husayn. So the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, went forward, put him down, then performed Takbîr for the Salât and prayed. Then while in the Salât, he prostrated with a prostration that he made lengthy. So I raised my head and (saw that) the boy was on the back of the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, while he was in prostration. So I returned to my prostration. Then when the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, finished, the people said: ‘O Messenger of Allâh, during the Salât you prostrated with a prostration which was lengthy, to the point that we thought something happened or that you were receiving Revelation!” He said: ‘None of that took place. However, my (grand)son mounted me like a riding beast, so I hated to rush him until he finished what he needed.’” (18)
In this Hadîth, we see that children were allowed in the Masjid during the time of Salât. We also see that the child was young enough that he was still playing on his grandfather’s back. What’s more, the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, actually altered the Salât in order to not interrupt the child’s fun, to the point where the Sahâbah questioned if something had happened. And if we look at the phrasing used by the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم: “Irtahalanî (mounted me like a riding beast)”, we see the mercy that was shown toward children, despite them interrupting the Salât.
And Imâm ath-Thahabî stated: “And where is the jurist, who has gone extreme into harshness, from the likes of this action?” (19)
7-On the authority of Ar-Rabî’ Bint Mu’awwith Ibn ‘Afrâ’, رضي الله عنها, who said: “The Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, sent (word) to the townships of the Ansâr on the morning of ‘Âshûrâ’: ‘Whoever began his day not fasting, then he must complete the rest of his day (fasting).’ So thereafter we used to fast it, and have the young from amongst our children fast it if Allâh willed. And we would go to the Masjid and we would make toys for them out of wool, then if one of them cried for food, we gave them that when it was time to break the fast.” (20)
And in another phrasing: “And we would make toys for them out of wool. Then we would take them with us, and if they asked us for food, we gave them that toy to occupy them until they completed their fast.” (21)
So based on these narrations, we see that the parents would go to the Masjid, then when the child cried for food, they would give them something to distract them. And in the second narration, it is stated that the parents would take the child with them.
Evidence Used to Prevent Children from the Masâjid
Explicit Textual Evidence
Some mention that there is evidence and reason to have children, or small children, kept away from the Masjid and they quote a Hadîth on the authority of Wâthilah Ibn al-Asqa’, رضي الله عنه, that the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said: “Safeguard your Masjids from your children...” (22)
However, the chain of this Hadîth contains Al-Hârith Ibn Nabahân, about whom An-Nasâ’î, stated: “He is Matrûk al-Hadîth.” (23) And Al-Bukhârî said: “He is Munkar al-Hadîth and Dha’îf.” (24)Also, after Imâm at-Tirmithî narrated a Hadîth that had him in its chain, he said: “It is not authentic according to the People of Hadîth, and Al-Hârith Ibn Nabahân is not a Hâfith according to them.” (25)
This is also narrated by Al-Bayhaqî on the authority of Abud-Dardâ’, Wâthilah and Abû Umâmah, رضي الله عنهم, (26) however this narration is also Munkar. Its chain contains Al-’Alâ’ Ibn Kathîr about whom Al-Bayhaqî said: “Munkar al-Hadîth.” (27) He also narrated it on the authority of Abud-Dardâ’, Wâthilah, Abû Umâmah and ‘Abdullâh Ibn ‘Amr Ibn al-’Âs, then mentioned that in its chain there is: “Al-’Alâ’ Ibn Kathîr who is weak, and it is not confirmed that Mak’hûl heard from Abud-Dardâ’, Wâthilah, Abû Umâmah.” (28) Also, Al-Bukhârî stated: “Al-’Alâ’ Ibn Kathîr (narrating) from Mak’hûl is Munkar al-Hadîth.” (29)
This has also been narrated by Ibn ‘Adî on the authority of Abû Hurayrah, رضي الله عنه, (30) however it is also a Munkar Hadîth, as it contains ‘Abdullâh Ibn Muharrir. Imâm an-Nasâ’î stated about him: “Munkar al-Hadîth.” (31) Also, Ibn al-Mulaqqin stated: “He is destroyed; the people abandoned his Hadîth.” (32)
Lastly, there is a narration on the authority of Mu’âth Ibn Jabal, رضي الله عنه, narrated by Al-Bayhaqî. (33) However, this narration is also weak due to the narrator from Mu’âth, who is Mak’hûl, not hearing from him. This Hadîth was weakened by Al-Bayhaqî himself after narrating it, as well as Al-Haythamî, (34) Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalânî (35) and Ash-Shawkânî. (36)
On top of this, there are many other defects in these narrations, however time does not permit clarifying all of them, but what has been mentioned is more than sufficient.
Implicit Arguments Based On Broad Textual Evidence
There is also a claim that children being the Masâjid nullifies Khushû’ in the Salât, so therefore, having them there should be prevented based on this.
Allâh, تعالى, stated:
قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ
Successful indeed are the believers. Those who offer their Salât (prayers) with all solemnity and full submissiveness. (37)
And He, تعالى, stated:
وَاسْتَعِينُواْ بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلاَةِ وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلاَّ عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ
And seek help in patience and As-Salât (the prayer) and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khâshi’în. (38)
On the authority of ‘Â’ishah who said: “The Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, prayed in a Khamîsah (39) which had symbols upon it. Then he said: “The symbols on this distracted me, so take it to Abû Jahm and bring me back an Anbijâniyah. (40)“ (41)
So based on these evidences, we see that Allâh, تعالى, praised those who have Khushû’ in their Salât, and the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, took steps to remove impediments of Khushû’ in his own Salât. In light of this, there is no doubt that humility in the Salât is a Shar’î goal.
Still, let us look at how the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, and the Sahâbah dealt with distractions in the Salât and what was considered acceptable and unacceptable to them.
On the authority of ‘Abdullâh Ibn ‘Abbâs who said: “I arrived riding a female donkey, and at that time I was nearing puberty. And the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, was leading the people in prayer at Minâ, not facing any wall. So I passed in front of some of the line (of prayer), dismounted and sent the female donkey to enjoy itself, and joined the row. And no one rebuked me for that.” (42)
So we see here that Ibn ‘Abbâs, رضي الله عنهما, performed this action, then none of the Sahâbah rebuked him or complained to the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, about it.
It is also important to note that a donkey is one of the three things that breaks the Salât if it passes in front of the one praying alone or the Imâm, as it is narrated on the authority of Abû Hurayrah, that the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said: “A woman, a donkey and a dog break the Salât. And that is protected against by the likes of the back of a saddle (as a Sutrah).” (43)
And we should note that it is legislated that if someone passes in front of you in the Salât, you should stop them if you are praying alone or are an Imâm, as it has been narrated on the authority of Abû Sa’îd al-Khudrî, that the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said: “If any of you prays toward something that shields him from the people, then someone wants to pass in front of him, then he should repel him back, then if he persists, then he should fight him, as he is nothing but a shaytân.” (44)
So here we see that despite these two rulings (a donkey breaking the Salât and stopping people from walking in front of you), the Sahâbah understood that since they were in Jamâ’ah, this did not apply, and they left Ibn ‘Abbâs, رضي الله عنهما, who was a child, along with his donkey, walk in front of them, and they did not complain.
One might say that it does not make sense that the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, was distracted by designs on a piece of clothing, but not by holding a child or having children crying and playing in the Masjid. To this we reply with what Imâm an-Nawawî stated: “As for the issue of the Khamîsah, then that is because it distracts the heart without any benefit. While carrying Umâmah, we do not agree that it distracts the heart. However, if it did distract the heart, then there are benefits that result from that as well as a clarification of rules which we have mentioned, and others. So he endured that distraction for those benefits, contrary to the Khamîsah. So the correct opinion to which there is no turning away from is that the Hadîth was to clarify the permissibility and to make notice of these benefits. So it is allowed for us and a permanent legislation for the Muslims until the Day of Recompense. And Allâh knows best.” (45)
So for those who claim that children are a distraction from Khushû’, then we reply with what Imâm Ibn Hazm stated: “And everything that he, صلى الله عليه وسلم, performed is the pinnacle of humility. And everything that contradicts it is falsehood, even if the mistaken one thinks that it is humility.” (46)
A final note on this topic is that there are other issues that the scholars have mentioned as being distractions from Khushû’ in the Salât, which are also discouraged or forbidden, but people do not complain about as much as children in the Masjid.
It has been narrated on the authority of Anas Ibn Mâlik, رضي الله عنه, that the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said: “The Hour will not arrive until the people compete concerning the Masâjid.” (47)
Al-Mannâwî said: “In other words, in building them, engraving them and adorning them like the actions of the People of the Book concerning their chapels and their churches.” (48)
And it is narrated that Abud-Dardâ’ said: “If you decorate your Masâjid and adorn your Mus’hafs, then destruction is upon you.” (49)
Al-Mannâwî stated: “So the decorating of the Masâjid and the adorning of the Mus’hafs is forbidden because it busies the hearts and distracts from Khushû’, contemplation and being present with Allâh, تعالى.” (50)
So to have signs, decorations, posters, etc. hanging in the Masâjid for people to be distracted by during their Salât, by reading and thinking about them, is something that distracts the heart, yet this is left untouched, but parents bringing children to the Masjid in order to teach them and to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, are rebuked.
What Should Be Done To Deal with Children in the Masjid
One might say: “But what do we do if children cry, fight or otherwise disturb those who are praying?” To this we reply:
If the child is of an age where he or she clearly perceives right from wrong, has a level of conscious awareness of why they need to be quiet, what is expected at the Masjid, and so on, then the parents must teach them what they need to know and how to behave, as this is the Sunnah of the Prophets, عليهم الصلاة والسلام. Allâh, تعالى, stated:
وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ لِابْنِهِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ
And (remember) when Luqmân said to his son when he was advising him: “O my son! Join not in worship others with Allâh. Verily! Joining others in worship with Allâh is a great Thûlm (wrong) indeed. (51)
And He mentioned what Luqmân, عليه الصلاة والسلام, said as well:
يَا بُنَيَّ إِنَّهَا إِن تَكُ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ فَتَكُن فِي صَخْرَةٍ أَوْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ أَوْ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَأْتِ بِهَا اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌ يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا أَصَابَكَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ وَلَا تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ الْأَصْوَاتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ
“O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allâh will bring it forth. Verily, Allâh is Subtle (in bringing out that grain), Well- Aware (of its place). “O my son! Establish the Salât, enjoin (people) for Al -Ma’rûf (goodness), and forbid (people) from Al -Munkar (evil), and bear with patience whatever befall you. Verily! These are some of the important commandments ordered by Allâh with no exemption. “And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allâh likes not each arrogant boaster. “And be moderate (or show no insolence) in your walking, and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the voice (braying) of the donkey.” (52)
And on the authority of ‘Umar Ibn Abî Salamah, رضي الله عنه, who said: “I was a young boy in the home of the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, and my hand was wildly moving around the plate (of food). So the Messenger of Allâh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said to me: “O young boy! Say the Name of Allâh, eat with your right (hand) and eat from that which is nearest to you.” (53)
And on the authority of Abû Hurayrah, رضي الله عنه, who said: “Al-Hasan Ibn ‘Alî, رضي الله عنهما, took a date from amongst the dates of charity, and put it in his mouth. So the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said: ‘Kikh, Kikh,’ (54) so that he would discard it. Then he said: ‘Do you not know that we do not eat what is charity?’” (55)
However, if the child has not yet developed to the point where they understand how to behave and why to behave that way, then we should act according to the following:
- The person who brought the child should pick them up and hold them when possible in order to keep them comfortable, based on the Hadîth of Abû Qatâdah al-Ansârî, رضي الله عنه, mentioned earlier.
- If they walk in front of those praying behind the Imâm or climb on top of those praying, they should be left as much as possible, based on the Hadîths of Shâddâd al-Laythî and ‘Abdullâh Ibn ‘Abbâs, رضي الله عنهم, mentioned earlier.
- The parents should give them a toy or something to distract them, based on the Hadîth of Ar-Rabî’ Bint Mu’awwith Ibn ‘Afrâ’, رضي الله عنها, mentioned earlier.
- If the Imâm hears a child crying, he should speed up the Salât so as to relieve the stress of the child and parent as much as possible, without having any defects in his Salât, based on the Hadîth of Anas Ibn Mâlik, رضي الله عنه, mentioned earlier.
And Allâh knows best.
1st Thul-Qi’dah, 1432
1- Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#516) and Muslim (#542).
2-Narrated by Muslim (#543).
3-Narrated by Muslim in another phrasing included in (#543).
4-“Al-Muhallâ Bil-Âthâr”, Vol. 3/125.
5-Narrated by Abû Dâwûd (#918) and An-Nasâ’î (#710) and it was declared “Sahîh” by Al-Albânî at each point in these two books.
6-“‘Awn al-Ma’bûd Sharh Sunan Abî Dâwûd”, Vol. 3/187.
7-“Fat’h al-Bârî Bi’Sharh Sahîh al-Bukhârî”, Vol. 1/592.
8-“‘Awn al-Ma’bûd Sharh Sunan Abî Dâwûd”, Vol. 2/124.
9-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#707 and #868).
10-Narrated by Muslim (#470).
11-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#708).
12-Narrated by Abû Dâwûd (#1,109) and Ibn Mâjah (#2,916). This was declared “Sahîh” by Imâm an-Nawawî according to the conditions of Imâm Muslim in “Khulâsat al-Ahkâm”, 2/803, and by Al-Albânî in “Sahîh Sunan Abî Dâwûd” (#1,109) and “Sahîh Sunan Ibn Mâjah” (#2,916).
13-“Tarh at-Tathrîb Fî Sharh at-Taqrîb”, Vol. 3/185-187
14-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#2,704), (#3,629) and (#7,109).
15-“Fat’h al-Bârî”, Vol. 7/95
15-Narrated by Abû Dâwûd (#494). It was declared “Hasan Sahîh” by Al-Albânî in “Sahîh Sunan Abû Dâwûd”, (#494).
16-Narrated by At-Tirmithî (#407) and he declared it “Hasan Sahîh”. It was declared “Sahîh” by An-Nawawî in “Al-Majmû Sharh al-Muhathab”, Vol. 3/10, and “Hasan Sahîh” by al-Albânî in “Sahîh Sunan at-Tirmithî”, (#407).
17-Narrated by An-Nasâ’î (#1,140), and others. Declared “Sahîh” by Al-Albânî in “Sahîh an-Nasâ’î” (#1,140), and he declared it “Sahîh according to the conditions of the two Shaykhs” in “Asl Sifat as-Salât”, Vol. 2/772. It was also declared “Sahîh” by Al-Wâdi’î in “As-Sahîh al-Musnad Mimâ Laysa Fis-Sahîhayn”, (#475). It was also declared “Sahîh” by Al-Arna’ût in his Tahqîq of “Siyar A’lâm an-Nubalâ’”, Vol. 3/257.
18-“Siyar A’lâm an-Nubalâ’”, Vol. 3/257.
19-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#1,960) and Muslim (#1,136), and this is his phrasing.
20-Narrated by Muslim (#1,136).
21-Narrated by Ibn Mâjah in his “Sunan” (#750).
22-“Al-Kâmil Fî Dhu’afâ’ ar-Rijâl”, (#1,540)
23-“Al-’Ilal al-Kabîr” by at-Tirmithî, (#98).
24-“Jâmi’ at-Tirmithî”, (#1,775).
25-“As-Sunan al-Kubrâ” Vol. 10/103
26-“As-Sunan al-Kubrâ”, Vol. 10/103.
27-“As-Sunan al-Kubrâ”, 4/127.
28-“Al-Kâmil Fî Dhu’afâ’ ar-Rijâl”, Vol. 3/347.
29-“Al-Kâmil Fî Dhu’afâ’ ar-Rijâl”, Vol. 4/135
30-“Adh-Dhu’afâ’ wal-Matrûkîn”, (#332).
31-“Al-Badr al-Munîr”, Vol. 9/567.
32-“As-Sunan al-Kubrâ”, Vol. 10/103.
33-“Majma’ az-Zawâ’id Wa Manba’ al-Fawâ’id”, Vol. 2/29,
34-“Al-Matâlib al-’Âliyah Bi’Zawâ’id al-Masânîd ath-Thamâniyah”, Vol. 1/175
35-“Nayl al-Awtâr Sharh Muntaqâ al-Akhbâr”, Vol. 2/124.
36-Sûrat Al-Mu’minûn, 1-2
37-Sûrat al-Baqarah, 45
38-A Khamîsah is a square piece of clothing made from wool.
39-An Anbijâniyah is thick piece of clothing which has no designs on it.
40-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#752) and Muslim (#556).
41-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#76, #493, and #861) and Muslim (#504) and this is one of Al-Bukhârî’s phrasings.
42-Narrated by Muslim (#511).
43-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#509). And Muslim narrated it with the extra phrase: “...then he should push back on his neck...” (#505)
45-“Al-Minhâj Sharh Sahîh Muslim Ibn al-Hajjâj”, Vol. 5/32-33
46-“Al-Muhallâ Bil-Âthâr”, Vol. 3/125.
47-Narrated by Abû Dâwûd (#449) and others. It was declared “Sahîh” by An-Nawawî “Khulâsat al-Ahkâm Fî Muhimmât as-Sunani Wa Qawâ’id al-Islâm”, Vol. 1/305, Ibn Daqîq al-’Îd in “Al-Ilmâm Bi’Ahâdîth al-Ahkâm”, Vol. 1/242, and elsewhere in his books, As-Suyûtî in “Al-Jâmi’ as-Saghîr Fî Ahâdîth al-Bashîr an-Nathîr”, (#9,848), Al-Albânî in “Sahîh Abî Dâwûd”, (#449) and elsewhere in his books, and Al-Wâdi’î in “As-Sahîh al-Musnad Mimmâ Laysa Fis-Sahîhayn”, (#41) and elsewhere in his books.
48-“Faydh al-Qadîr Sharh al-Jâmi’ as-Saghîr Fî Ahâdîth al-Bashîr an-Nathîr”, Vol. 6/417
49-Narrated by Ibn al-Mubârak in “Az-Zuhd”, (#797). Some have authenticated it as a statement from the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, but the correct opinion is that it is a statement from Abud-Dardâ’, رضي الله عنه.
50-“Faydh al-Qadîr Sharh al-Jâmi’ as-Saghîr Fî Ahâdîth al-Bashîr an-Nathîr”, Vol. 1/366
51-Sûrat Luqman, 13
52-Sûrat Luqman, 16-19
53-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#5,376) and Muslim (#2,022).
54-This is a phrase used to stop children from eating things that are Harâm or considered repulsive.
55-Narrated by Al-Bukhârî (#1,491) and (3,072) and Muslim (#1,069), and this is Al-Bukhârî’s first phrasing.